Location: Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
Name: Mr. Sanjay Kumar Mishra
Date of profile: July 2012
Intervention: Livelihood programme: The training and placement of girls as housekeepers or security guards.
Aim: To enable and empower women and girls from the tribal community to build a livelihood and become self-reliant through the training and placement of girls into employment.
Background and context
Bharatiya Kisan Sangh (BKS) is the Jharkhand chapter of ATSEC (Action against Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation of Children), a network of NGOs that are working to prevent sexual exploitation and human trafficking, especially of women and children.
In Jharkhand the majority of the population is tribal. Many of these girls and women migrate for work and in some cases are exploited and abused. On their return to the community some will be ostracised and rejected. In order to support these girls and women and empower them to become self-reliant and independent, BKS created a livelihood programme to train and place girls in decent jobs.
In 2009, BKS introduced the first training course in security guard training, since then other training courses have been developed including training in housekeeping and taxi driving.
BKS use their strong community networks and resources to reach out and identify young girls who desire to work and could benefit from enrolling on the training programmes. BKS work with key people in the villages to encourage girls to enroll for training sessions with the organisation. Training is currently offered in two areas, to train girls as housekeepers or security guards.
Whilst girls receive the training they stay at BKS’s training centers. Up to 100 girls can be accommodated at BKS’ two training centres. Whilst training they receive accommodation and all meals and snacks.
Girls take part in a three month training course and are trained by a staff member from one of the numerous hotels who have agreed to be a part of the programme. These trainings aim to make the girls adept at house-keeping, cleaning and serving food. The girls also receive training in personal development to equip them for their lives ahead. At the end of the training period the trainees are tested to ensure they have learnt the necessary skills and knowledge.
Professional skills are taught in:
- Cleaning and sanitation management (including maintaining furniture, being aware of different cleaning products and ironing clothes)
- Using kitchen appliances and utensils
- Cooking and kitchen management
- Monthly budget handling
- Identifying systems to organise and re-organise houses, offices, hotels and guest houses
- Behaviour and social awareness
- Family care including how to care for newborn babies, children and the elderly
- Telephone call behavior
- Hygiene and basic first aid awareness
Security guard training
With the guidance and support of the 11th Batallion Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) and Government of Jharkhand, BKS selects candidates to undergo the security training programme. Candidates appear before a selection board with representatives from the BKS office, field staff and CRPF officials. Girls are selected on the basis of their age, height, weight, health, gymnastic capability and motivation. After the final selection procedure these girls start the three month training which includes:
- special combat training
- training on traffic rules, vehicle parking, registration etc
BKS advocate with the corporate sector and others to provide placements to the girls who undertake trainings. Their main employers are in domestic houses, hotels, corporate houses and also the government guest houses. Depending on where the girls are employed they may also be provided with accommodation especially if they are working for hotels and guest houses. If accommodation is not provided, BKS supports girls to find a suitable place to live.
Target group and scale
The programme is targeted at all girls (over 18) who are survivors as well as those who are in situations of vulnerability. 60 girls are trained at a time in two batches of 30.
According to BKS most of the girls who have undergone these trainings have:
- Developed self-esteem and are able to take charge of their own life
- Developed confidence
- Realised that marriage is not the only option for them
- Allowed girls to financially support themselves and their families
- Become role models in the wider community to other girls
In addition girls who have trained as security guards have:
- Developed dreams to become members of the police force or paramilitary force in the future
- A sense of pride from wearing proper uniforms giving them a certain status and respect
234 female candidates have trained as security guards and 176 have found jobs with KGBV Schools, Jharkhand Bhawan, Mahila Kalyan Samiti, Adhunik Steel Plant (Orissa), Adhunik Group, NGOC Hotwar Ranchi, State Museum Hotwar Ranchi, Hotel Green Horizon, Taurian World School and BKS.
100 female candidates have been trained as housekeepers and 71 have found jobs with Jharkhand Bhawan, VVIP Guest House Hotwar Ranchi, Hotel Green Horizon, Hotel Green Acres, Hotel Capitol Hill, Hotel Capitol Residency, Hotel AT International and BKS.
Non-discrimination and an individual response
The programme is non – discriminatory in the sense that it tries to reach out to all the girls who are survivors as well as those who are in a situation of vulnerability. BKS advertises in villages, and in different locations that are accessible to the girls. Field workers also try to spread the information regarding the training programmes. Girls respond to the adverts posted by BKS to enroll on the training programme.
The focus of this programme is on individual support.
All the trainees participate actively in the programme. Every day in the evening they get together and share their daily learning and any problems with each other. The trainees also provide feedback on the training programme. When they finish the training and are placed in employment, from time to time BKS representatives visit them and take note of any feedback or problems to be addressed.
BKS have a child protection policy in place.
Sustainability and replication
BKS has received funding from a number of organisations and has now formed a Public-Private-Partnership through which the trained girls are placed in employment.
The female security guard training programme was launched for the first time in India by BKS and supported by UNODC. Based on the success of the pilot BKS lobbied for more support with other bodies. The security guard training programme has also been replicated in India in the state of Bihar.
Key factors of success:
- changing behaviour
- encouraging smartness among the girls
- preparing girls to behave excellently in the work place to ensure positive feedback from employers
- Working with the corporate sector is very important for the livelihood programme to function properly
- Mobilising local resources is also important – for example BKS has recently advocated for the Agricultural Training Centre ( a private institution) to provide some girls with a place to stay whilst they are training
- Not all training programmes work – BKS also started training in driving to prepare girls to become taxi drivers. This was not popular among the girls and has not been successful though BKS are now training boys in the driving programme
- Girls can become very efficient and work hard when they are involved in the training programme
- There is a need to diversify training, currently BKS are supporting the training of girls as nurses, beauticians and in IT
- The training has been successful however more knowledge surrounding the different employment sectors where there is a demand for trained girls would be helpful, as would the creation of more partnerships with employers who can place girls
- Girls who are mothers are sometimes harder to train and place in employment as they may miss training and cannot always find childcare
- Sometimes girls struggle to keep their jobs when they are suffering from past experiences or faced with pressure to marry