Research addressing the sexual assault of men is a fairly recent development in the medical, health care, psychological and sociological literature. Research in both community and institutionalized populations has focused on documenting the existence of this phenomenon and establishing prevalence or incidence rates, however, understandings of effects on male victims lag behind those regarding women. Only recently have the consequences of sexual assault victimization for men been thoroughly addressed. This review summarizes the research literature concerning the physical, mental health, and sexual consequences of sexual assault victimization for men. The literature suggests a range of possible/occasional consequences, but no well-established patterns of injuries, psychological/emotional reactions or sexual responses/adjustments for male sexual assault victims.