Children under the age of 18 years make up the majority of population in Kenya, with 42% of the population under the age of 14 years. Partially, as a result of inadequate legal measures, Kenya has experienced a number of challenges in relation to child protection, including physical violation, economic exploitation, emotional abuse, neglect, abandonment, child trafficking, sexual exploitation and other untold sufferings.
The development of the National Plan of Action against Sexual Exploitation of Children in Kenya dates back to the First World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) held in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1996. This first public recognition by governments of the existence of the vice therefore resulted in a commitment to a Global Declaration and Agenda for Action to address the problem. Further to this, Kenya reaffirmed its commitment at the Second World Congress held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2001, and committed itself to prioritize the development of the NPA against SEC. In the Third World Congress held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2008, there was a declaration and call for action to prevent and stop sexual exploitation of children and adolescents and this too became a priority task for governments.